Thursday, May 23, 2024

Solid Waste Management Pdf

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Introduction

Solid waste management (SWM) is the process of collecting, transporting, treating, recycling, or disposing of solid waste produced by human activity as explained in the attached solid waste management pdf. Solid waste comprises a wide range of materials, including household, industrial, and commercial waste, as well as construction and demolition waste.

Why Solid Waste Management is Important?

Solid waste management is extremely essential for our environment. Solid waste generated from various types of human activities damages our environment and reduces its quality, which has a direct impact on the health of humans living in that environment. Spreading of garbage also contaminates other natural sources of the environment which can cause diseases and epidemics. For a more detailed study, download the attached solid waste management pdf below. Here are some of the key reasons denoting the importance of solid waste management:

1. Environmental Protection

Solid waste management identifies and controls the open disposal of solid waste that can lead to pollution of air, water, and soil. Hence it protects the environment by proper processing and disposal of solid waste, and also preserves natural resources.

solid waste management pdf

2. Public Health & Safety

Proper waste management checks the spread of infectious diseases by reducing the breeding grounds for disease vectors. Also, Proper disposal and treatment of hazardous waste prevent the release of harmful substances that could pose risks to human and wildlife health. The attached solid waste management pdf is ready to download.

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3. Better Living Conditions

Effective waste management prevents littering and thus contributes to an aesthetically better environment. Clean surroundings & well-maintained environment positively impact the quality of life for communities.

4. Energy Conservation & Sustainability

Recycling and waste-to-energy processes contribute to energy conservation by reducing the need for extracting, processing, and manufacturing new materials and products. Proper waste management promotes sustainability by creating harmony between human activities and the environment. The attached solid waste management pdf is ready to download.

5. Legal Compliance

Many countries and regions have regulations and laws in place to govern waste management. These regulations help avoid legal consequences and ensure responsible and ethical waste disposal practices.

6. Community & Social Responsibility

Waste management practices start from home. A responsible and educated person always practices effective waste management practices that could lead to an environmentally aware community. These environment-friendly communities participate in maintenance, recycling, waste reduction, and environmental conservation initiatives.

solid waste management pdf

Moreover, future generations can also receive inspiration to do the same. Moreover, future generations learn how to protect our precious environment. The solid waste Management pdf is attached at the end of this article.

7. Economic Outcomes

Waste management practices could generate great employment opportunities from collection and transportation to recycling and waste treatment facilities. Recycling and reusing materials create a circular economy, where valuable resources are recovered, reducing the overall economic burden of extracting and processing raw materials.

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8. Saving Habitats

Improper disposal of waste can lead to habitat destruction, harm to wildlife, and even wildlife extinction. Effective waste management helps protect ecosystems and the species that inhabit them. The solid waste Management pdf is attached at the end of this article.

solid waste management pdf

Facts That We Should Know

According to Investopedia, the top five nations that produce the most waste in the world are Turkey, Latvia, Chile, Mexico, and Italy.

With less than 20% of the world’s waste recycled annually, rich countries often ship recyclables to developing countries. According to the United Nations, Millions of electronic devices including smartphones, laptops, tablet computers, toys, cameras, and other gadgets generate a massive amount of hazardous “electronic waste” which is being illegally exported to developing or poor countries. Interpol asserts that despite the legality of exporting discarded goods to impoverished nations for reuse or refurbishment, a considerable amount is being sent to Africa or Asia with deceptive intentions. The solid waste Management pdf is attached at the end of this article.

solid waste management pdf
Credits- Twitter

The lack of recycling may cause shortages of rare-earth minerals for the production of upcoming generations of electronic devices.

Worldwide, approximately 92 million metric tons of textile waste are generated each year.

Should you gather all the discarded ribbons from an average year, you could use them to encircle the Earth.

Roughly one-third of the global food production is wasted or lost, indicating that it goes unconsumed.

A mere 9% of the plastic manufactured since the 1950s has undergone the process of recycling.

solid waste management pdf

By the year 2050, the weight of plastic in the ocean is projected to surpass that of fish.

Half of the Earth’s coral reefs have become extinct because the temperature of the water around them is increasing gradually and they are finding themselves unable to adapt accordingly. The solid waste Management pdf is attached at the end of this article.

solid waste management pdf

Ninety percent of our table salt contains microplastics.

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More Interesting Facts about Waste

Antarctica stands out as the sole relatively “clean” location on Earth, safeguarded by the Antarctic Treaty. This international agreement prohibits military operations, mineral mining, nuclear explosions, and the disposal of nuclear waste in the region.

Saving one-fourth of the currently lost or wasted global food could provide enough sustenance to feed approximately 870 million people.

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, also known as the Pacific Trash Vortex, comprises marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean. Some calculations suggest that the patch’s expanse could be double the size of the United States, and it would require 67 ships an entire year to clean up just under 1% of the accumulated garbage mass. The solid waste Management pdf is attached at the end of this article.

solid waste management pdf
Credits- Twitter

Every year, over 14 billion pounds of garbage, primarily consisting of marine life-toxic plastic, is deposited into the world’s oceans.

Plastic has been observed in or around the bodies of nearly 60% of all seabird species, 22% of cetaceans, every sea turtle species, and an expanding roster of fish species.

Annually, more than 53.6 million tons of electronic waste, including items like cell phones, computers, and TVs, is generated. The solid waste Management pdf is attached at the end of this article.

solid waste management pdf

Every year, discarded plastic amounts to enough to encircle the Earth four times.

Do you know the decomposition of plastic bags may extend up to 1,000 years?

Every year, the global production of plastic waste reaches 400 million tonnes.

The breakdown of glass can potentially exceed 1 million years. However, glass is entirely recyclable, and its recycling process can be repeated endlessly without any compromise in quality or purity. By recycling a single glass bottle, enough energy is saved to illuminate a 100-watt lightbulb for four hours. The attached solid waste management pdf is available for further reference in the article.

By recycling one ton of paper, 7,000 gallons of water can be saved. Additionally, each ton of recycled paper has the potential to preserve 17 mature trees.

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An aluminum can has the capability to be recycled and returned to a grocery store shelf as a new can in as little as 60 days. Aluminum, being endlessly recyclable, maintains its quality without any degradation. The recycling process for aluminum requires only 5% of the energy compared to producing the product from new materials.

solid waste management pdf

Globally, approximately 25 million metric tons of electronic waste are discarded each year.

Guiyu, China, is possibly the largest e-waste dump globally, receiving 700 tons of discarded electronics annually. The solid waste management pdf is available in the article.

Solid Waste Management in India

With its vast population and the substantial volume of waste it generates, India confronts substantial waste management challenges, producing around 1.3 billion tons annually, constituting a third of the global total. The recycling industry in India needs enhancement, given that only 5% of recycled material is presently reused. Addressing these issues is imperative for ensuring a sustainable future and environmental protection. The attached solid waste management pdf may be downloaded for detailed information.

Facts & Figures

According to the National Action Plan for Municipal Solid Waste Management 2015, According to data gathered periodically by the CPCB, the reported or estimated waste generation in the country amounts to 1,41,064 tons per day. Out of this total, 90% (127,531 tons per day) is collected, and 27% (34,752 tons per day) is processed as also shown in the attached solid waste management pdf.

Reasons for Improper SWM in India

There is a lack of segregation of municipal solid waste (MSW) at the source or household level. Bio-medical, slaughterhouse and other wastes often get mixed with MSW at dustbins and ultimately reach landfill sites. Door-to-door collection of waste is not widely practiced in the majority of cities/towns. Covered transportation of wastes is not a common practice, as waste-transporting vehicles are often poorly maintained, appearing dirty and emitting foul smells, and littering wherever they pass through as also given in the attached solid waste management pdf.

solid waste management pdf
Credits- Twitter

Designated and differentiated community bins for waste are not properly maintained, attracting stray cattle and becoming breeding grounds for rodents and flies. While many cities/towns have established waste processing plants, they often struggle to be self-sustaining. Landfill sites are not scientifically managed, posing potential threats to groundwater pollution and contributing to the deterioration of ambient air quality. The attached solid waste management pdf may be downloaded for detailed information.

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Interesting Facts about SWM in India

Annually, India generates 62 million tonnes of waste, with 70% being collected. However, only 12 million tonnes undergo treatment, while 31 million tonnes find their way into landfills. The projection is that the generation of municipal solid waste will increase to 165 million tonnes by 2030, driven by shifting consumption patterns and rapid economic growth.

Major metropolitan cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, and Kolkata collectively produce approximately 10 million tonnes of garbage daily.

solid waste management pdf

Visualize the daily generation of untreated garbage in urban India, equivalent to three million trucks piled high with waste. Laid end to end, these three million trucks would span half the distance between the Earth and the moon. The attached solid waste management pdf may be downloaded for detailed information.

Solid waste generation in Maharashtra is the highest among Indian states, reaching over 26,820 tonnes per day. In the e-waste sector, Mumbai takes the lead by generating an estimated 1,20,000 tonnes annually. Delhi and Bengaluru secure the second and third positions, with e-waste generation figures of 98,000 and 92,000 tonnes, respectively.

solid waste management pdf

On a global scale, there are approximately 2,200 waste-to-energy plants, with the European Union hosting 445, China operating 150, and the USA having 86. Despite its substantial population, India currently has only 8 such plants.

India holds the 12th position among the world’s largest plastic polluters and ranks 10th in the generation of municipal solid waste. The attached solid waste management pdf may be downloaded for detailed information.

Studies indicate that if India persists in depositing untreated garbage at its current pace, a landfill encompassing 66,000 hectares, standing 10 meters high, would be required. This landfill would accommodate 20 years’ worth of waste, equivalent to almost 90% of Bengaluru’s total area.

Currently, the waste mountain of Ghazipur stands at approximately 65 meters tall (around 213 ft), nearly comparable to the height of the Taj Mahal, which is approximately 73 meters. The height of this waste mountain increases by 10 meters each year.

solid waste management pdf
Ghazipur Landfil (Credits- Twitter)

Presently, the Ghazipur mountain falls short only by 8 meters in comparison to the Qutub Minar. The recurrent fires occurring at the site pose a threat to tens of thousands of individuals residing near the landfill. When the waste ignites, it releases Nitrous Oxide and Carbon Dioxide, contributing to respiratory issues among the local population. The attached solid waste management pdf may be downloaded for detailed information.

Solid Waste Management Process

Classification of Waste

The waste can be classified on the following basis:

  1. Based on Origin- Waste may be agricultural (cattle dung, plant residues, crop residues), domestic (from the house), municipal (from street sweeping, schools, buildings, markets), industrial (from industries), and hazardous (hospitals) type.
  2. Based on Nature- Waste may be organic & inorganic.
  3. Based on Burning- It may be combustible and non-combustible.
  4. Based on Degradation- It may be biodegradable (degraded by microorganisms) & non-degradable.
  5. Based on the Kind of Material- The waste may be food and food residual or other than food.

The attached solid waste management pdf may be downloaded for detailed information.

Collection and Handling

Typically, solid waste produced in individual households is deposited into a community bin. Many cities have municipal agencies conducting house-to-house collection. In India, the prevalent approach involves a community bin system, where municipal bodies own and manage storage bins positioned at regular intervals along the roadside. Municipal bodies use a fleet of vehicles to transport the collected solid waste from various community bins to the disposal site.

solid waste management pdf

Recovery & Recycling

This is a crucial step because often, valuable items discarded by humans can be collected through this process and subsequently recycled and transformed into various useful products.

Ultimate Disposal

Following the recycling process, the residual waste comprises only organic matter, which can be easily disposed of through various methods, including:

1. Open Dumping

Open dumps refer to uncovered areas where all types of solid waste are deposited without processing or segregation. These sites become breeding grounds for disease-carrying flies, rodents, and other insects. Additionally, rainwater runoff from these dumps contaminates nearby land and water, contributing to the spread of diseases. The attached solid waste management pdf may be downloaded for detailed information.

solid waste management pdf

2. Composting

Composting involves the breakdown of organic wastes by microorganisms, typically bacteria, and fungi, into simpler forms. These microorganisms utilize the carbon in the waste as an energy source. The decomposition of nitrogen-containing materials leads to the transformation of the original substances into a more uniform product, suitable for use as a soil amendment.

solid waste management pdf

3. Incineration

Incineration is the method of burning hazardous materials at elevated temperatures to eliminate contaminants. This process takes place in an “incinerator,” a specific furnace designed for burning hazardous materials within a combustion chamber. Incineration can effectively treat various types of hazardous materials, including soil, sludge, liquids, and gases. While it is successful in destroying many harmful chemicals like solvents, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), and pesticides, incineration does not eliminate metals such as lead and chromium. The attached solid waste management pdf may be downloaded for detailed information.

4. Landfill

A landfill serves as a facility for the disposal of solid waste, whether it is hazardous or non-hazardous. In addition to adhering to applicable regulations, landfills are designed to “safeguard the environment from contaminants.” They cannot be established in locations where the presence of landfills may pose a risk to the environment.

solid waste management pdf
Landfill (Credits- Twitter)

Conclusion

Embracing solid waste management is not just a responsibility; it is a collective commitment to the well-being of our community and the planet we call home. Every small action counts, and together, we have the power to make a significant impact. Imagine a community where streets are clean, air is fresh, and nature thrives. It starts with us, making mindful choices about how we dispose of our waste. By recycling, reducing, and reusing, we not only contribute to a cleaner environment but also set the stage for a healthier, more sustainable future. The attached solid waste management pdf may be downloaded for detailed information.

Let’s be the change-makers our community needs – united in purpose, determined in action. Through our collective efforts, we can transform the challenge of waste into an opportunity for growth, demonstrating that the well-being of our community and the preservation of our environment is inextricably linked to the choices we make today. Together, we can create a legacy of responsible stewardship for generations to come.

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